Essay on science and health hazards

Agriculture is the prime necessity for the country and apparently environmental impact on the climate has hugely affected the monsoons. Huge amount of waste, including metals like lead, toxic chemicals coming from Industries is dumped in rivers and water-bodies. The largest source of water pollution in India is the untreated sewage water. Some villages in India still practice defecation in the open which further pollutes the nearby water bodies. Ganga and Yamuna are ranked amongst the top 10 the most polluted rivers in the world.

Noise pollution is another burning issue of Modern India. Traffic congestion on roads, maddening sounds of honking horns, factory sirens, shuddering sound of the running of machines and loud sound of loudspeakers majorly contribute to the tremendous increase in noise pollution. Environmental pollution has resulted in the outbreak of so many health issues for an average Indian.

India has committed itself to the effective implementation of the Paris agreement on climate change. Prime Minister of India Shri. As plastic is a major pollutant, the State Government of Maharashtra has compete ban on plastics bags from 23rd June The notification issued by the Maharashtra state government banned manufacturing, usage, sale, circulation and storage of plastic materials such as bags, spoons, plates and other disposable items. The ban also includes packaging material and thermocol.

However the plastic used for packaging of medicines and drugs, milk and treatment of solid waste is exempted from the ban. Stringent laws are enforced to control Noise pollution. Various NGOs Non-Government Organizations are working day and night to educate the average Indians about the ill-effects of pollution on their mental and physical health.

The Government is running rigorous campaigns through television, movies, print-media and other such outlets to encourage people to practice environmentally friendly lifestyle. One cannot deny that the polluted environment in urban India is a ticking time bomb.

Prolific industrialization for growth of the National economy has apparently put at risk even a breath of fresh air in the Indian cities. Lack of public participation in the implementation of stringent laws to fight environmental pollution is another huge concern. The public health in India is at serious risk. The Indian government is working to implement the solutions on a larger canvas, for example, switching to clean energy, regulations to reduce the emissions of harmful pollutants, and campaigning to spread acquaintance about the adverse effects of environmental pollution.

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The most significant aspect is encouraging the Indian people to give away their age-old practices which are by and large hazardous to the environment. Pollution as defined by the dictionary is the introduction or presence in of a substance that is harmful or has poisonous effects on the environment.

Pollution is further explained as the introduction into the natural environment contaminants that can cause an adverse change. To be basic, environmental pollution causes harm to the environment and which in turn brings harm to people in the environment.


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The occurrence of environmental pollution is when the surrounding is contaminated by pollutants; this brings about some changes that adversely affect our regular lifestyles. The key components or elements of pollution are pollutants and they are majorly waste materials of very different forms. Pollution brings about a disturbance in the balance of the environment and the ecosystem. Development and modernisation have brought with them a sharp increase in pollution and this has given rise to various human illnesses and most importantly global warming.

There are many various forms of environmental pollution including water, air, radioactive, soil, heat, noise and light. For every form of pollution, there are two sources of pollution; the non point and the point sources. It is very easy to monitor, indentify and control the point sources of pollution while the non-point pollution sources are quite difficult and hard to control. Industries from all around the world even though they have brought affluence and prosperity have continually disturbed ecological balances and have probed the biosphere.

The fall-outs of experiments, pall of smoke, industrial effluents and the swirling gases are a constant hazard to health, contaminating and polluting both water and air. The inappropriate disposal of industrial wastes has become a source of both water and soil pollution.


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The chemical wastes from the various industries can cause pollution to rivers, lakes, seas and also to soil and air through the release of fumes. Commercial and household wastes are sources of environmental pollution when the wastes are not disposed of properly. Vehicles that use diesel and petrol emit smoke and also the smoke that is emitted by cooking coal pollutes our environment. The exponential growth in the number of vehicles on the roads has only aided the emission of smoke that when released spreads and eventually mixes with the air that we breathe.

The smoke of these various vehicles is quite harmful and is the primary cause of air pollution.

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There is also the risk of sounds from these vehicles producing noise pollution. The rapid rate of urbanisation and also industrialisation are major causes of environmental pollution because of the harm and death they bring to plant which causes harm to animals, humans and the ecosystem. The rapid population increase especially in developing nations, the demand for occupation, basic food and shelter has been on the rise.

Due to the high demand, deforestation has become rampant to help meet the growing demand of the population. The continual combustion of fuels of fossils is as source of pollution to the soil, the air and water through toxic gases like Carbon monoxide. Pesticides and fertilizers that are used during agriculture are major sources of environmental pollution. This is probably the most dangerous and common form of environmental pollution and it has been seen to be synonymous with urbanisation.

The primary reason for this is the high rate of fuel combustion. Fuel combustion is now a very basic requirement for transport, cooking and some other activities both domestically and industrially. All these activities release a large number of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere and are not removed from the air, affecting and threatening our existence.

Sulphur oxide is released into the air by the smoke and this makes the air very toxic. This is primary caused by smoke from factory stacks, chimneys, vehicles or even something very common like the burning of a log of wood. The emission of sulphur oxide and many other gases into the atmosphere leads to global warming with the capacity to lead to an acid rain.

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The emission of these greenhouse gases and the global warming it causes has led to droughts, erratic rains and increased temperatures worldwide. Conditions and ailments like Bronchitis, Asthma and the extremely dangerous case of lung cancer and this occurs majorly in the cities. An example of one of the many sad examples of the calamities that can rise due to air pollution is the gas tragedy of Bhopal. The gas tragedy was a result of the release of a gas methyl isocyanate at a gas plant. About 2, people lost their lives in the tragedy and more than , people suffered from extensive respiratory problems.

Respiratory illnesses, increase in asthma and cardiovascular diseases can be caused by an irritant for example, particulates that are below 10 micrometers in size. Till this very moment, there are still birth defects in babies born and this has been attributed to the Bhopal Tragedy. Water is essential for life; every living creature or being depends on water for survival.

There are a lot of factors that contribute to water pollution, one very major contributing factor is industrial effluent disposed into rivers and seas and causing a large imbalance in the properties of water and this makes the bodies of water unfit for live. There are also a lot of diseases that are caused by water pollution and these diseases affect both non-aquatic and aquatic species. Pesticides and insecticides that are sprayed on different plants is a source of pollution to the groundwater and also, oil spills in oceans have led to severe irreversible damage to the bodies of water.

Another source of water pollution is eutrophication and it happens due to activities like the washing of utensils, clothes near rivers, ponds or lakes; the washing detergent moves into the water and inadvertently blocks the penetration of sunlight and this reduces the oxygen content of the water and makes it inhabitable. The pollution of water can have devastating effect on marine life.

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Citing an example, pathogens grow well with sewage, while inorganic and organic compounds that are in water can make the composition of water to change. If the level of dissolved oxygen is low, the water is considered to be polluted; dissolved oxygen is from the decomposition carried out on organic materials like sewage that are added to the water. By harming aquatic creatures, water pollution contaminates the whole food chain by seriously causing harm to the humans that are dependent on the aquatic creatures. There has been a sharp increase in the number of diarrhoea and cholera cases everywhere.

This is also called land pollution and it happens due to addition of chemicals that are not wanted to the soil caused by human activities. The use of pesticides and insecticides removes all the compounds of nitrogen from the soil thus making it highly unfit for the plants to get nutrients from. Deforestation, mining and waste release from industries also depletes the soil and this will inhibit the growth of plants and the soil will end up being eroded.

A significant part of solid waste is the industrial or commercial waste. Obesity can cause many medical issues like diabetes, joint-pain and heart diseases. A study published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition stated that people who ate junk food performed poorly in cognitive tests. It concluded that junk foods can deteriorate your memory and can leave with you with a weaker brain.

It causes a sudden inflammation in the hippocampus in the brain which is responsible for memory and recognition. Junk foods are loaded with high sugar and fats that can cause certain chemical reactions in the brain which affect its functioning. By consuming too much of it, the body loses essential nutrients and amino acids.

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These symptoms eventually lead to inability of brain to deal with stress and can leave you feeling depressed. Consumption of excess junk food leaves the brain in a dilemma. Excessive sugar intake can cause blood sugar level to fluctuate and makes the brain demand more food, which eventually leads to overeating.

It makes it difficult for the body to digest excessive junk food.

Surviving on junk food causes deficiency of essential nutrients and vitamins required for the proper growth and development of the body. Unhealthy eating habits combined with imbalance of fatty acids and required nutrients can hamper the development of your brain and other body parts. Excess intake of soda and sugar also causes tooth decay and weakening of your bones.