Furthermore, multi-touch, in the beginning, did not overlay the touch sensors on top of the screen. Apple may have brought us the first multi-touch device for the masses when it came out with the iPhone in However, just like the graphical user interface in the first Macintosh, Steve Jobs and Apple did not invent multi-touch technology.
Rather, it was a slow progression of research and innovation, decades in the making. Below are some notable developments in multi-touch technology, culminating with the iPhone in Job placement currently does not frequently consider technology related skills for adults with Down syndrome. Research is now demonstrating that many adults with Down syndrome can use desktop, laptop, and touch-screen devices such as the iPad effectively, and that knowledge and skills need to be considered as policies regarding employment for adults with Down syndrome are developed and revised.
As previously noted, research has shown that individuals with Down syndrome can effectively use computers Feng et al. Computer related training can help people with Down syndrome learn how to use an unfamiliar device. The high level of competency that the users exhibited in this study reveals much about the underutilized potential of this workforce-capable population of users.
The ease with which most of the users interacted with a touch-screen also might suggest that a touch-screen could be used as a form of assistive technology, particularly when many desktop computers now have the option to be configured with this feature.
The capability observed in this study is particularly encouraging because the majority of the participants had little or no experience using an iPad but at least basic experience using a touch-screen before the study. We expect that, with more training, the performance of the participants especially those in the middle of the spectrum could be substantially improved. Published in: in Volume 7, Issue 4 ,. Her research focuses on communication skills, computer usage, transitioning and employment for individuals with Down syndrome. Her work has been recognized by awards from national and international research and advocacy groups.
Lazar is a professor in the Department of Computer and Information Sciences at Towson University, and is currently on leave and at the University of Pennsylvania. In addition, this research was partially performed while he was a fellow at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University.
Touchscreen - Wikipedia
His primary focus is on digital accessibility for people with disabilities. Her research focuses on helping individuals with cognitive disabilities interact with computers.
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She also works on the development of usable and accessible security applications for individuals with disabilities. His research interests include human-computer interaction, user-centered design, policy implications of accessibility and usability, and expanding employment for individuals with disabilities.
Skip to Main Content. Abstract This research study focuses on evaluating the usability of multi-touch tablet devices by adults with Down syndrome for workplace-related tasks. There are often more logistical challenges to doing usability testing with people with disabilities than with standard usability testing. It can help focus the usability testing as well as reveal potential challenges before they occur during the actual usability testing. Use real examples and real accounts when conducting usability testing.
People with Down syndrome are often literal and direct and would feel uncomfortable using accounts that are not theirs. Be flexible when participants say that they would instead prefer to type in a different time or a different piece of data.
The level of engagement with tasks is high, and allowing for flexibility allows for the level of engagement to remain high. Ask participants to bring their passwords to the usability testing written out on paper. The participants often forgot their passwords or had trouble remembering where the capitalization or symbols were in the password. Present satisfaction scales such as a Likert scale visually as described earlier in the paper , due to the visual strength of people with Down syndrome. Instructions should be provided both verbally and also in printed, visual format.
Having the printed versions of instructions and materials seems to be helpful in having participants comprehend the information. Cover up any list of tasks when using printed instructions , whenever possible, so that the participant will not be distracted by the other tasks listed on the sheet and will not jump ahead to a different task. Create tablet apps that include robust auto-suggested search features, visual as well as text-based aspects, and clear, straightforward icons, as these were features of particular value to users with Down syndrome in this study.here
Multi touch research paper
Methods We decided that for the current investigation of using touch-screens for workplace-related tasks, a modified usability testing methodology would be the most appropriate approach. Usability testing is the most appropriate method to reach this goal for the following reasons: There is very limited research on computer usage by people with Down syndrome and none on touch-screen usage by people with Down syndrome.
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It is difficult to use experimental design for preliminary investigations like the current study when the relevant factors are not even completely identified. So we are interested in understanding the issue from multiple different viewpoints, with a more structured method than ethnography, but less structured or focused than experimental design. This study helps identify key factors that are worth further investigation through future experimental studies.
Experimental studies usually require full control of one or more relevant factors. However, there were many factors in this study that would be impossible to control, such as the specific, personal email account used for the email tasks. In an experimental study, it would be expected for all participants to use exactly the same email account e. But for users with Down syndrome, it was important to use their own email and Facebook accounts, because security and privacy are major issues in the population of computer users with Down syndrome.
Parents have serious discussions with their adolescent and adult children about these issues. Every user could potentially have a different email account from a different provider Gmail, Yahoo! AOL, Comcast —each with a different interface. Because touch-screens and tablet computers differ so greatly, both in terms of their screen interface as well as the gesturing required, it would be hard to generalize many of the results from one tablet computer such as the iPad to another such as the Samsung Galaxy.
Our goal is primarily to understand usage of the iPad, not all tablet computer devices, and to explore whether adults with Down syndrome are able to use the iPad successfully. Only a few of the findings related, for instance, to touch-screen-based keyboarding could be generalized to other devices. Usability testing is similarly focused on understanding one interface, not on finding statistical differences and generalizing to many other interfaces, as is common for experimental design. Pilot Sessions Two pilot sessions took place before the research method was finalized. Participants Ten participants took part in the study.
All participants were required to meet the following criteria: Be at least 18 years of age. Have a minimum of basic experience with touch-screen computers. Have an existing Facebook account and a Web-based email account that they could use for the study. Table 1. Demographic Information for the 10 Participants Table 2 lists the computer experience for the 10 participants. Table 2. Computer Experience of the 10 Participants Table 3 lists the level of experience with email and Facebook. Table 3. Participant Experience with Email and Facebook Table 4 reports the participant experience with applications such as electronic calendaring, purchasing items online, and computer classes.
Social networking tasks Use the Safari Web browser, go to www.
Logout from your Facebook account. You can leave the subject line blank. Price comparison tasks Go to the barnesandnoble. Go to the amazon. Go to the staples. Go to the officedepot. P1 and P2 used the following text: The weather will get much colder, so I need to remember to wear my hat and gloves. Procedure All participants received the instructions and tasks on paper, but also had the instructions and tasks read to them before they started each task. Social Networking All 10 participants were able to complete the Facebook tasks.
Screenshot of the auto-suggested search results on the Facebook interface Task 3: Send a message The send message task took a longer time primarily because participants needed to type in compose and send the message. Task 5: Logout Logging out of Facebook took an average of 40 seconds. Email A majority of the 10 participants were able to complete the email tasks. Time in Seconds and Participant Ratings for Email Tasks Task 1: Login to email application Most participants used the same email and password for login to both their Facebook and email account.
Task 2: Create a message Participants took an average of 4 minutes to create compose and send the message. Task 2: Create an event Creating an event seemed to be challenging for most of the participants. Screenshot of the time selection interface requiring the scrolling gesture also, note the plus sign, very small, in the lower right hand of the iPad screen Price Comparison All participants were able to complete the price comparison tasks successfully and within a reasonable amount of time see Table 8 for time performance for the price comparison tasks.
Time in Seconds and Participant Ratings for Price Comparison Tasks Tasks 1 and 2: Find and compare a book price from two different Web sites Participants spent an average of more than 4 minutes to find the book on the Barnes and Noble Web site Task 1 and less than 2 minutes on the Amazon Web site Task 2. Screenshot of the iPad virtual keyboard Performance statistics To compile the performance statistics, four researchers independently counted the total number of words entered by the participants.
Table The text entered by P3 is shown below: The weather will get much colder, so I need to remember to wear my hat and gloves. Typing patterns Table 11 summarizes the typing patterns of the 10 participants. Typing Patterns of the 10 Participants The iPad Notes app had an auto-suggest feature for words, but it was difficult for the participants to understand how to use the feature, so most participants ignored the suggestions.
Example of an auto-suggested word on the iPad Notes app With the exception of P7 who ranked the task as difficult , the users P1, P2, and P3 all ranked the task as easy, while all other users ranked the task as very easy. Discussion All participants were able to complete the majority of the tasks in all five categories. Challenges and Opportunities Switching from a desktop or laptop interface to the iPad touch-screen interface did present challenges to the participants.